Tax Guide in South Africa


South Africa’s tax system is governed by the South African Revenue Service (SARS). This guide provides an overview of the key aspects of taxation in South Africa, including the types of taxes, tax rates, filing requirements, and important deadlines.

Types of Taxes

1. Personal Income Tax

  • Residents: Taxed on worldwide income.
  • Non-Residents: Taxed only on income sourced within South Africa.
  • Tax Rates for 2023/2024:
  • Up to R237,100: 18%
  • R237,101 – R370,500: 26%
  • R370,501 – R512,800: 31%
  • R512,801 – R673,000: 36%
  • R673,001 – R857,900: 39%
  • R857,901 – R1,817,000: 41%
  • Over R1,817,000: 45%

2. Corporate Tax

  • Standard corporate tax rate: 27%.
  • Small Business Corporations (SBCs) benefit from reduced rates on the first R550,000 of taxable income.

3. Value-Added Tax (VAT)

  • Standard rate: 15%.
  • Certain goods and services are exempt or zero-rated (e.g., basic food items, exports).

4. Capital Gains Tax (CGT)

  • Inclusion rate for individuals: 40%.
  • Inclusion rate for companies: 80%.
  • Effective rate for individuals: Up to 18% (based on personal income tax bracket).
  • Effective rate for companies: 22.4%.

5. Dividends Tax

  • Rate: 20%, withheld by the company paying the dividend.

6. Provisional Tax

  • Applies to individuals and companies with income not subject to PAYE (Pay-As-You-Earn).

Tax Filing and Payment

1. Tax Year

  • Individuals: March 1 to February 28/29.
  • Companies: Financial year as determined by their own accounting period.

2. Filing Requirements

  • Individuals earning below the threshold (R500,000) and meeting certain conditions may not need to file a return.
  • All companies and individuals earning above the threshold or with complex tax situations must file.

3. Important Deadlines

  • Personal Income Tax Returns (ITR12):
  • Manual submissions: Typically end of September.
  • Electronic submissions: Typically end of October (non-provisional) and end of January (provisional).
  • Provisional Tax Returns (IRP6):
  • First period (Aug 31): Covers first six months.
  • Second period (Feb 28): Covers the full year.
  • Third (top-up) period (Sep 30): Optional, to avoid penalties.

Tax Deductions and Credits

1. Personal Deductions

  • Medical Expenses: Tax credits for medical scheme contributions and out-of-pocket expenses.
  • Retirement Contributions: Contributions to pension, provident, and retirement annuity funds.
  • Travel Expenses: Deductible for employees who use their personal vehicle for work.

2. Business Deductions

  • Operating Expenses: Ordinary expenses incurred in running a business.
  • Depreciation/Capital Allowances: Depreciation on capital assets.
  • Research and Development (R&D): Enhanced deductions for R&D activities.

Compliance and Penalties

1. Compliance

  • eFiling: SARS encourages online submissions through its eFiling platform.
  • Record-Keeping: Taxpayers must keep records for at least five years.

2. Penalties

  • Late Filing: Penalties and interest for late submission of returns.
  • Underpayment: Penalties for underpayment of provisional tax or incorrect estimates.
  • Audit and Review: SARS may audit taxpayers to ensure compliance.

International Taxation

1. Double Taxation Agreements (DTAs)

  • South Africa has DTAs with various countries to prevent double taxation and encourage cross-border trade and investment.

2. Foreign Income

  • Residents are taxed on worldwide income but can claim foreign tax credits for taxes paid abroad.


Understanding the tax system in South Africa is crucial for compliance and optimizing your tax situation. Whether you are an individual, a small business owner, or a corporate entity, staying informed about the various tax obligations, rates, and deadlines is essential to avoid penalties and make the most of available deductions and credits. Always consider consulting with a tax professional or advisor to ensure accurate and beneficial tax planning and filing.

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