Is hydrology a science or engineering?

Hydrology is considered to be a science, specifically an earth science. Hydrology is the study of the movement, distribution, and quality of water on Earth. This includes the study of precipitation, evaporation, snow and ice, groundwater, surface water, and the water cycle in general. Hydrologists study how water interacts with the Earth’s surface, subsurface, and atmosphere, as well as the impacts of human activities on water resources and ecosystems.

Hydrology uses scientific methods, including data collection, observation, and modeling, to understand the water cycle and its interactions with the environment. Hydrologists use knowledge and tools from physics, chemistry, geology, biology, mathematics, and computer science to study water and water-related issues.

However, Hydrology is closely related to engineering, specifically water resources engineering, which is the application of hydrology and other sciences to the design, construction, and management of water resources infrastructure such as dams, canals, and wells. Engineers use hydrological knowledge to design and build infrastructure that can effectively manage and utilize water resources. So, hydrology can be considered as a fundamental science for water resources engineering.